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Culture of Ukraine

The Ukrainian culture inherits many religious and cultural traditions of Kievan Rus and Byzantine empire. Certain influence was rendered by the cultures of nearby countries, especially from Russia, Poland, Austria and Turkey. Polish and Austrian influence is more perceptibly in western Ukraine, while Russian - in east Ukraine, and in a south part of country prevailing influence is rendered by the Tatar and Turkish culture.

Ukrainian literature was begun with historical chronicles and religious literature of Kievan Rus. The XVI-XVIII centuries were rich with folk poetry, bylinas, theology treatises and sermons. The national literature has appeared at the end of XVIII century with the output of satiric epic poem of Ivan Kotlyarevskogo (1769-1838) "Eneida". Famous writers and poets of Ukraine 19-20 centuries were romanticism Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861), Panteleimon Kulish (1819-1897) and Markiyan Shashkevich (1811-1843); realists Ivan Franco (1856-1916) and Marko Vovchok (1834-1907); modernists Lesya Ukrainka (1871-1913), Mikhail Kotsyubinskiy (1864-1913), Volodimir Vinnichenko (1880-1951); the soviet Ukrainian writers and poets were Nikolay Khvylevoy (1893-1933), Pavel Tychina (1891-1967), Maksim Ryl'skiy (1895-1964), Ivan Drach (1936), Vasiliy Simonenko (1935-1963); dissident Vasiliy Stus (1938-1985). Among other important figures of the Ukrainian culture 20 century can be named playwright-experimenter Nikolay Kulish (1892-1942); film director Alexandr Dovzhenko (1894-1956), creator of known worldwide film “Earth” (1930); theatrical producer Les’ Kurbas (1885-1942), founder of vanguard theater "Berezil'" in 1920th years; sculptor-modernist Alexandr Arkhipenko (1887-1963), who emigrated on the West; artist Nikolay Boychuk (1882-1939), founder of the school of monumentalists.

Ukraine has tested a literary and art revival in 1920-1930 years, but the majority of writers and artists connected with it, either were lost or have stopped creativity during Stalin terror of 1930th years. After that the Ukrainian writers and artists have appeared under the control of Communist Party and could create products of "socialist realism" only. National literature and art began to revive owing to Khruschevs’ "thawing weather" and appeared in this period "generations of 60th years". Following revival of culture has followed after 1987 as a result of publicity, reorganization and independence.